Caral city was comprised of six pyramids (or platform mounds), two plazas, an amphitheatre, and ordinary houses.It is speculated that the city sustained itself by cotton farming; this was accomplished by building canals to irrigate cotton fields with river water.She is also founder and director of the Archeological project Caral. The Norte Chico people were apparently very peaceful people, no evidence exists of weapons or defensive fortifications, and no evidence exists of Human sacrifice.The ruins of Caral are located in an arid region, but with nearby rivers, some 14 miles from the coast and 120 miles north of Peru’s modern capital city of Lima. In one of the pyramids they uncovered 32 flutes made of condor and pelican bones and 37 cornets made of deer and llama bones, also found was a primitive quipu.This cotton was then used to make textiles such as fishing nets, carry bags, and clothing. A 30-foot-wide staircase rises from a sunken circular plaza at the foot of the pyramid, passing over three terraced levels until it reaches the top of the platform.
Hunting and gathering peoples of the Chilean archipelago, Patagonia, the Gran Chaco, and eastern Brazilian uplands had a combined population of less than 800,000 and a density range of 0.2 (Chilean archipelago) to 1.1 (western Chaco).
The Norte Chico civilization in Peru is the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the first six independent civilizations in the world; it was contemporaneous with the Egyptian pyramids.
It predated the Mesoamerican Olmec by nearly two millennia.
The history of South America is the study of the past, particularly the written record, oral histories, and traditions, passed down from generation to generation on the continent of South America.
South America has a history that has a wide range of human cultures and forms of civilization.